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Understanding Ovarian Cysts: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Ovarian cysts have become increasingly common in recent years, possibly due to lifestyle changes, hormonal imbalances, and greater awareness leading to more frequent diagnoses. Archish Fertility & IVF in Bangalore offers comprehensive care for women experiencing ovarian cysts, providing specialized evaluation and treatment to ensure optimal reproductive health.

Types of Ovarian Cysts

1. Functional Cysts Functional cysts are the most prevalent type and develop as a part of the menstrual cycle. They are usually harmless and include:

  • Follicular Cysts: Occur when the follicle, a sac in the ovary that contains an egg, does not rupture to release the egg, causing it to grow.
  • Corpus Luteum Cysts: Form when the empty follicle does not shrink after releasing the egg, filling it with fluid.

2. Pathological Cysts These cysts result from abnormal cell growth and can be either noncancerous or cancerous:

  • Dermoid Cysts: Contain various tissue types like hair, skin, or teeth, originating from cells that produce eggs.
  • Cystadenomas: Develop from ovarian tissue and contain watery or mucous material.
  • Endometriomas: Occur in women with endometriosis, where uterine lining cells grow outside the uterus and attach to the ovary.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts

While many ovarian cysts are asymptomatic and discovered during routine pelvic exams, larger cysts, or those that rupture can cause:

  • Pelvic pain, typically on one side
  • A feeling of fullness or heaviness in the abdomen
  • Bloating
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Painful menstrual periods
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder
  • Sudden, severe abdominal or pelvic pain if the cyst ruptures or causes ovarian torsion

Causes of Ovarian Cysts

Common causes of ovarian cysts include:

  • Hormonal Imbalances: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) leads to multiple cysts.
  • Pregnancy: Cysts can form early to support it until the placenta develops.
  • Endometriosis: Leads to endometriomas.
  • Pelvic Infections: Severe infections spreads to the ovaries and fallopian tubes, causing cyst formation

Diagnosis of Ovarian Cysts

Diagnosis often involves:

  • Pelvic Exam: A doctor may detect a cyst during a pelvic examination.
  • Ultrasound: Uses sound waves for creating ovary images that helps determine the cyst’s size, location, and type.
  • CT Scan or MRI: Provides detailed pictures for further evaluation.
  • Blood Tests: Tests like CA-125 can help rule out ovarian cancer, mainly if the cyst is solid.

Treatment Options for Ovarian Cysts

Treatment depends on the cyst’s size, type, and symptoms:

  • Watchful Waiting: Monitoring small, asymptomatic functional cysts with periodic ultrasounds.
  • Medication: Hormonal contraceptives, like birth control pills regulates the menstrual cycle and prevent new cysts.
  • Surgery: Necessary for large, symptomatic, or suspicious cysts. Procedures include:
  • Laparoscopy: Minimally invasive surgery for smaller cysts.
  • Laparotomy: More extensive surgery for larger or potentially cancerous cysts.

Preventing Ovarian Cysts

While prevention is not always possible, specific measures can reduce the risk:

  • Regular Pelvic Exams: Early detection through routine check-ups.
  • Birth Control Pills: Help regulate hormones to prevent new cysts.
  • Managing Underlying Conditions: Proper management of conditions like PCOS and endometriosis.

Complications of Ovarian Cysts

Although most ovarian cysts are benign, complications can include:

  • Ovarian Torsion: A large cyst can cause the ovary to twist, cutting off the blood supply and requiring emergency surgery.
  • Rupture: A ruptured cyst causes severe pain and internal bleeding, needing immediate medical attention.
  • Cancer: Some cysts can be malignant, highlighting the importance of regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

Ovarian cysts are a common gynaecological issue. Understanding their types, symptoms, causes, and treatment options helps manage and reduces the risk of complications. If you experience symptoms or have concerns about ovarian cysts, consult a healthcare professional for appropriate evaluation and management.

Take Control of Your Health

If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms of ovarian cysts or have concerns about your reproductive health, contact Archish Fertility & IVF in Bangalore today to schedule a consultation with our experienced specialists. Your health and well-being are our top priorities.

Frequently Asked Questions

Our Specialists

dr-ankita-gahlot
Dr. Ankita Gahlot

Fertility Consultant

dr-anagha-nawal
Dr. Anagha Nawal

Fertility Consultant

dr-lakshmi-kumari-a
Dr. Lakshmi Kumari A

Fertility Consultant

dr-navin-desai.
Navin Desai

Male Fertility Expert / Embryology Head